Wine in History
Wine has been produced for thousands of years.
Republic of Georgia
The earliest evidence of wine to date was found in the Republic of Georgia, where 8,000-year-old wine jars were uncovered and according to Stephen Batiuk from the University of Toronto:
“What is significant about this site is that it produced some of the earliest examples of domesticated grapes, which we believe were involved in the earliest production of wine. We know that a wine vessel was discovered in Shulaveri, which also provides evidence of early wine production. But here (Imiri site) wine could be produced even earlier taking wine production in Georgia all the way back to 8,000 BC.”
Also, traces of wine have also been found in Iran with a 7,000-year-old wine jar reconstructed from fragments, reported Amy Ellsworth on the Penn Museum blog
“The practice of wine-making or viniculture can be traced back to the Neolithic period, 7,000 years ago when the first Eurasian grape vines were domesticated for this purpose. This “Wine Jar” was found at Hasanlu in Hajji Firuz, Iran… The jar had a capacity of approximately 9 liters (2.5 gallons). It is the oldest known wine storage container in the world. Analyses of the two jars in the Penn Museum showed that they had contained a resinated wine or “retsina,” i.e., with terebinth tree or pine resin added as a preservative and medical agent. There was a red to go with the white wine, based on the colors of the residues.” Read more
Also in Armenia with the 6,100-year-old Areni-1 winery, which is by far considered to be the earliest known winery. The earliest form of grape-based fermented drink however, was found in northern China, where archaeologists discovered 9,000-year-old pottery jars. Wine had reached the Balkans by c. 4500 BC and was consumed and celebrated in ancient Greece and Rome. It has been consumed for its intoxicating effects throughout history and the psychoactive effects are evident at normal serving sizes.
Wines made from produce besides grapes include rice wine, pomegranate wine, apple wine and elderberry wine and are generically called fruit wine.